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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(5), 450-456; doi:10.3390/ijerph5050450
Article

Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination upon Soil Microbes: Lead-induced Changes in General and Denitrifying Microbial Communities as Evidenced by Molecular Markers

*  and
Received: 23 October 2008; Accepted: 16 December 2008 / Published: 31 December 2008
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Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a common environmental contaminant found in soils. Unlike other metals, Pb has no biological role, and is potentially toxic to microorganisms. Effects of low (1 ppm) and high (500-2000) levels of lead (Pb) upon the soil microbial community was investigated by the PCR/DGGE analysis of the 16S and nirK gene markers, indicative of general microbial community and denitrifying community, respectively. Community analysis by use of those markers had shown that Pb has detectable effects upon the community diversity even at the lowest concentration tested. Analysis of sample diversity and similarity between the samples suggested that there are several thresholds crossed as metal concentration increase, each causing a substantial change in microbial diversity. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the denitrifying microbial community adapts to elevated levels of Pb by selecting for metal-resistant forms of nitrite reductases.
Keywords: Lead; 16S; soil; DGGE; microbial diversity Lead; 16S; soil; DGGE; microbial diversity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sobolev, D.; Begonia, M. Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination upon Soil Microbes: Lead-induced Changes in General and Denitrifying Microbial Communities as Evidenced by Molecular Markers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5, 450-456.

AMA Style

Sobolev D, Begonia M. Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination upon Soil Microbes: Lead-induced Changes in General and Denitrifying Microbial Communities as Evidenced by Molecular Markers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2008; 5(5):450-456.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sobolev, Dmitri; Begonia, Maria. 2008. "Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination upon Soil Microbes: Lead-induced Changes in General and Denitrifying Microbial Communities as Evidenced by Molecular Markers." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 5, no. 5: 450-456.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert