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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 68-75; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010011
Article

Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation

Received: 24 October 2006; Accepted: 19 January 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
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Abstract: Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine.
Keywords: Agricultural effluent reuse; microbial pathogens; waterborne disease; wastewater reclamation Agricultural effluent reuse; microbial pathogens; waterborne disease; wastewater reclamation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Sa`ed, R. Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4, 68-75.

AMA Style

Al-Sa`ed R. Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2007; 4(1):68-75.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Sa`ed, R. 2007. "Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 4, no. 1: 68-75.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert