Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2006), Pages 217-308

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 217-227; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030026
Received: 3 November 2005 / Accepted: 7 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. [...] Read more.
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 228-234; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030027
Received: 5 November 2005 / Accepted: 5 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg /dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05). However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami. Full article
Open AccessArticle Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 235-243; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030028
Received: 21 October 2005 / Accepted: 6 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Lifecycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 244-251; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030029
Received: 10 October 2005 / Accepted: 5 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP) conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous [...] Read more.
An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP) conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits. Full article
Open AccessArticle Novel Functional Association of Serine Palmitoyltransferase Subunit 1-A Peptide in Sphingolipid Metabolism with Cytochrome P4501A1 Transactivation and Proliferative Capacity of the Human Glioma LN18 Brain Tumor Cell Line
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 252-261; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030030
Received: 5 January 2006 / Accepted: 6 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some chemical modulators of cytochrome P4501A1, Cyp1A1, expression also perturb the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, SPT, a heterodimeric protein responsible for catalyzing the first reaction in sphingolipid biosynthesis. The effect of altered SPT activity on Cyp1A1 expression has generally been attributed to [...] Read more.
Some chemical modulators of cytochrome P4501A1, Cyp1A1, expression also perturb the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, SPT, a heterodimeric protein responsible for catalyzing the first reaction in sphingolipid biosynthesis. The effect of altered SPT activity on Cyp1A1 expression has generally been attributed to changes in the composition of bioactive sphingolipids, generated downstream in the SPT metabolic pathway, but the precise mechanism remains poorly defined. A generally accepted model for chemical-induced transactivation of the Cyp1A1 gene involves intracellular signaling mediated by proteins including the arylhydrocarbon receptor, AhR, whose interaction with the 90 kilo Dalton heat shock protein, Hsp90, is essential for maintaining a high affinity ligandbinding receptor conformation. Because ligand-induced Cyp1A1 expression is important in the bioactivation of environmentally relevant compounds to genotoxic derivatives capable of perturbing cellular processes, binding to Hsp90 represents an important regulatory point in the cytotoxicity process. In the present study, based on evidence that indicates subunit 1 of serine palmitoyltransferase, SPT1, interacts with Hsp90, both ligand-induced Cyp1A1 transactivation and capacity for proliferation were evaluated using the wild type Glioma LN18 human brain cancer cell line and its recombinant counterparts expressing green fluorescent SPT1 fusion proteins. Exposure to the prototypical Cyp1A1 inducer, 3-methylcholanthrene, 3-MC, resulted in the translocation of SPT1 from a primarily cytoplasmic domain to sites of focal adhesion complexes. Immunolabel for Hsp90, which was dispersed throughout the cell, became primarily cytoplasmic, while the distribution of AhR remained unaffected. When compared to the wild type, cells transfected with recombinant SPT1-GFP vectors had significantly attenuated levels of 3-MC-induced Cyp1A1 mRNA, as determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Although all the Glioma cell lines exhibited mitogenic proliferative response in dose response assay with the potent Cyp1A1 inducers 3-MC, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and benzo [k] fluoranthene, BKF, only the recombinant cell line designated - 75SPT1-GFP, which was transfected with a mutant deletion of SPT1, retained its proliferative capacity at the highest PAH doses used in this study. The results suggest that overexpressing SPT1 as a green fluorescent fusion protein has a modulating effect on the transactivation of Cyp1A1. This is possibly due to SPT1 interacting with Hsp90 to modulate AhR-Hsp90 interaction, and altering downstream events such as in downregulating the transactivation and metabolic activity of Cyp1A1. This is supported by the fact that the -75SPT1-GFP recombinant cell line, with much lower capacity for Cyp1A1 induction, exhibited sustained mitogenic response to high doses of AhR ligands, but not the Cyp1A1 inducible wild type. Conceivably, the effect mediated by SPT1 on the AhR signaling pathway is an important underlying factor contributing to variability in Cyp1A1 gene expression and consequently, cytotoxic response to environmentally relevant compounds that pose risk to human health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Multi-level Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Skin Lesions in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 262-267; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030031
Received: 5 October 2005 / Accepted: 7 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic is one of the most important toxicants in the environment. In Inner Mongolia of China, 300,000 residents are believed to be drinking water containing >50μg/liter. Skin lesions have been known as the most common consequences resulting from chronic exposure to arsenic. To clarify the prevalence of arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is important to assess the impact of this problem among the target population, and to make future planning. We evaluated the association between multi-levels inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and skin lesions in an arsenic-affected area in Inner Mongolia, China. One hundred nine and 32 subjects in high (>50μg/liter) and low (<50μg/liter) arsenic-affected villages were recruited and had the detailed physical examination with special emphasis on arsenic-related skin lesions. Arsenic exposure was measured for each participant with respect to iAs concentration of primary well and the duration using the well. Arsenic-induced skin lesions including keratosis, pigmentation, and/or depigmentation were diagnosed in 56 and 3 subjects in the two villages, respectively. Logistic regression was conducted to calculate odd ratios of skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure with adjustments for sex, age group, smoking and duration of exposure. A consistent dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure level and skin lesion risk was observed. Compared to those with iAs concentration <50μg/liter, the adjusted odds ratios of skin lesions for the subjects with 51-99, 100-149 and >150μg/liter were 33.3% (OR =15.50, 95% CI: 1.53-248.70), 46.7% (OR =16.10, 95% CI: 3.73-69.63) and 55.7% (OR= 25.70, 95% CI: 6.43-102.87), respectively. Duration of using well was not associated with increased risk of skin lesions in this population; (OR =1.68, 95% CI: 0.40-6.91 for 6-15 years, OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 0.58-9.14 for over 15 years) compared with the duration of less than 5 years. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combating the Epidemic of Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Perspectives from School-aged Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 268-273; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030032
Received: 3 November 2005 / Accepted: 7 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the obstacles to positive dietary practices and increased physical activity and to solicit the students’ recommendations for addressing and possibly reducing the negative practices that are associated with the rise in obesity and [...] Read more.
This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the obstacles to positive dietary practices and increased physical activity and to solicit the students’ recommendations for addressing and possibly reducing the negative practices that are associated with the rise in obesity and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Data for the study were obtained from the administration of the 2005 Project Health High School Survey (PHHSS) which measured the students’ perceptions regarding obstacles to eating more nutritious, healthier foods and obstacles to participating in daily physical activity. The reasons for students’ lack of interest in practicing more life-healthy behaviors are ranked and recorded. Some of the students indicated that they usually ate what they liked to eat, and the decision about what to eat was made because of the taste of the food without regard for any health consequence or negative health outcomes. Finding ways to reach these students at their young ages is the key to successfully combating the high prevalence of obesity and the development of other chronic diseases in childhood, as well as in adulthood. Full article
Open AccessArticle Implementation of a Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Program among School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 274-277; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030033
Received: 3 November 2005 / Accepted: 7 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to test students’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease information and to determine if a carefully structured training program administered to high school students would increase their knowledge about cardiovascular disease and risk factors that are preventable. A [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to test students’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease information and to determine if a carefully structured training program administered to high school students would increase their knowledge about cardiovascular disease and risk factors that are preventable. A pilot study was conducted during which fifty high school students from nine counties in the State of Mississippi were measured for their knowledge of hypertension both at baseline and after the completion of an intervention training activity. There were significant gains in knowledge between the pre-test and the post-test that the students completed. The gains in knowledge indicate that elimination of risk factors is possible if all health care and school-based prevention programs are implemented to positively impact changes in eating and physical activity behaviors. Students’ involvement in such activities could translate into significant changes in risk factors at these ages and throughout their lifetime. It is widely accepted that these behavioral changes, if sustained into adulthood, could have the potential to influence cardiovascular risk reduction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Examination of the Food and Nutrient Content of School Lunch Menus of Two School Districts in Mississippi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 278-285; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030034
Received: 3 November 2005 / Accepted: 7 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the diet quality of the school meals in two Mississippi school districts and compared them to the national guidelines. We examined the lunch menus of the two school districts that participated in the National School Lunch Program and School [...] Read more.
This study examined the diet quality of the school meals in two Mississippi school districts and compared them to the national guidelines. We examined the lunch menus of the two school districts that participated in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program focusing on food quality and assessing both healthy and unhealthy foods and eating behaviors. This analysis was completed through a computerized review used to accurately determine the nutrient content. Both the standard and the alternative meals provided by the cafeterias in the two school districts exceeded the minimum requirement for calories for all grade levels. The meals from the urban schools cafeteria provide more calories than meals from the cafeteria in the rural school district. Although schools believe that they are making positive changes to children’s diets, the programs are falling short of the nutrient recommendations. Poor nutrition and improper dietary practices are now regarded as important risk factors in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other chronic diseases, with excessive energy intake listed as a possible reason. Dieticians, school professionals and other health care practitioners need to accurately assess energy intake and adequately promote a dietary responsible lifestyle among children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Free Radicals: Emerging Challenge in Environmental Health Research in Childhood and Neonatal Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 286-291; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030035
Received: 10 October 2005 / Accepted: 6 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infants and children may undergo severe oxidative stress due to disease state, pre-existing nutritional status, frequent use of oxygen, and lower levels of antioxidant defenses. Antioxidant defenses, made up of intracellular and extra-cellular components, work synergistically to prevent oxidative damage. Total antioxidant [...] Read more.
Infants and children may undergo severe oxidative stress due to disease state, pre-existing nutritional status, frequent use of oxygen, and lower levels of antioxidant defenses. Antioxidant defenses, made up of intracellular and extra-cellular components, work synergistically to prevent oxidative damage. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) was analyzed by method of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Patients admitted in Pediatric Dept, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, India were selected for these studies. TAA level in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (HIE) stage III and in poor outcome cases was significantly low. Erythrocyte SOD activity level was low in pre-term neonates. TAA level in severely malnourished children at the time of hospital admission was low. This low antioxidant level in severely malnourished children could be multi-factorial viz. low zinc, selenium, vitamin A and C deficiency, recurrent infections, elevated free iron and chronic starvation stage. Delayed recovery of oxidant injury may lead to delayed incomplete recovery at cellular level. In a study of 29 tuberculosis patients TAA level was found to be low in tubercular patients compared with control. TAA level decreased more in CNS tuberculosis compared with other system tuberculosis. In a study of nutritional tremor syndrome TAA, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol levels were low during pre-tremor phase compared with tremor phase (ATS). Pre-term neonates have incompletely developed antioxidant defenses and are deficient in vitamin E, which is normally derived from maternal circulation at the end of 3rd trimester. Therefore, decreased TAA level in HIE with poor outcome indicates addition of antioxidants in therapeutic strategy. Since rise in TAA in antioxidant supplemented group of severely malnutrition children was higher with good outcome compared with nonsupplemented group it would be prudent to supplement antioxidant during nutritional management. These studies have shown that health benefits can be obtained by children with a reduced risk of disease from supplements of antioxidant nutrients. The amounts of optimal supplements in these disorders, whether pharmacologic or large, are to be determined. Further work is needed to show whether modest increases in nutrient intakes in children with these disorders will delay or prevent the complications and improve the outcome. Therefore, available evidence regarding health benefits to be achieved by supplementing antioxidant nutrients is encouraging. Free radical injury and antioxidant deficiency is more common than what we think. Severely malnourished children and children suffering from chronic infections and diseases are at several fold increased risk of antioxidant deficiency and likely to suffer from free radical injury. Appropriate interventions are required in reducing the risk associated with these observations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 292-300; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030036
Received: 15 November 2005 / Accepted: 3 July 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed [...] Read more.
Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the ∝, β and γ subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal φ29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50°C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE, nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds were also present, indicating a broad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA’s demonstrated the early establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic and anaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediation process. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Oxygen Transfer Performance on Sub-surface Aeration Systems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3(3), 301-308; doi:10.3390/ijerph2006030037
Received: 10 October 2005 / Accepted: 10 June 2006 / Published: 30 September 2006
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficiency of oxygen transfer depends on many factors including the type, size and shape of diffusers and the tank geometry. In this paper, the effect of the depth of water in the tank and, the extension of coverage area of diffusers [...] Read more.
The efficiency of oxygen transfer depends on many factors including the type, size and shape of diffusers and the tank geometry. In this paper, the effect of the depth of water in the tank and, the extension of coverage area of diffusers on each of oxygen transfer capacity (OC), efficiency (E) and, on a percentage of oxygen absorption (δ) is tested. Experimental procedure is adopted to evaluate the effect of these parameters. The results of the study showed that, both the depth of water and the extent of coverage area of diffuser had a significant effect on the tested parameters. The values of oxygen transfer capacity (OC) and efficiency (E) ranged from 18 to 170 grO2/m3. hr and from 2 to 17 grO2/m3air, respectively; depending on the depth of water in tank and the ratio of diffusers coverage area. The percentage of oxygen absorption ranged from 0.45-5.4% depending on the testing conditions. Specific mathematical models to .describe the effect of each parameter were also derived. The exponential form of equation proved to be efficient in describing the effect of a depth water on oxygen transfer capacity (OC) whereas; the linear form of equation was good enough in representing the effect of the other parameters. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top