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Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability
Center for Environment, IST, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500 072, India
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Received: 10 January 2005 / Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Abstract: Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. “Bioremediation”, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non -toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums – upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO-3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content/oxidizable carbon), sorption capacity index (CEC/oxidizable carbon). Enzyme activities of agricultural interest like urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, dehydrogenase and BAA-hydrolyzing protease, which are involved in the nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycles, were also assessed. Total content of macro and micronutrients in the final compost was also determined to assess the fertilizer value. The studies revealed that composting could be applied as a remediation technology after removing the top sediment. The maturity indices that are evaluated from the present study can be used to validate the success of the remediation technology.
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Rekha, P.; Raj, D.S.S.; Aparna, C.; Bindu, V.H.; Anjaneyulu, Y. Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 251-262.
Rekha P, Raj DSS, Aparna C, Bindu VH, Anjaneyulu Y. Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(2):251-262.
Rekha, P.; Raj, D. S.S.; Aparna, C.; Bindu, V. H.; Anjaneyulu, Y. 2005. "Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 2: 251-262.