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Serum Acetyl Cholinesterase as a Biomarker of Arsenic Induced Neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2004; Accepted: 6 February 2005 / Published: 30 April 2005
Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental toxicant, and one of the major mechanisms by which it exerts its toxic effect is through an impairment of cellular respiration by inhibition of various mitochondrial enzymes, and the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Most toxicity of arsenic results from its ability to interact with sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Most toxicity of arsenic results from its ability to interact with sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Recent studies have pointed out that arsenic toxicity is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species, which may cause severe injury/damage to the nervous system. The main objective of this study was to conduct biochemical analysis to determine the effect of arsenic trioxide on the activity of acetyl cholinesterase; a critical important nervous system enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Four groups of six male rats each weighing an average 60 + 2 g were used in this study. Arsenic trioxide was intraperitoneally administered to the rats at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20mg/kg body weight (BW), one dose per 24 hour given for five days. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water without chemical. Following anaesthesia, blood specimens were immediately collected using heparinized syringes, and acetyl cholinesterase detection and quantification were performed in serum samples by spectrophotometry. Arsenic trioxide exposure significantly decreased the activity of cholinesterase in the Sprague-Dawley rats. Acetyl cholinesterase activities of 6895 + 822, 5697 + 468, 5069 + 624, 4054 + 980, and 3158 + 648 U/L were recorded for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively; indicating a gradual decrease in acetyl cholinesterase activity with increasing doses of arsenic. These findings indicate that acetyl cholinesterase is a candidate biomarker for arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Keywords: Arsenic; acetyl cholinesterase; biomarker; neurotoxicity; Sprague-Dawley rats
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Patlolla, A.K.; Tchounwou, P.B. Serum Acetyl Cholinesterase as a Biomarker of Arsenic Induced Neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 80-83.
Patlolla AK, Tchounwou PB. Serum Acetyl Cholinesterase as a Biomarker of Arsenic Induced Neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(1):80-83.
Patlolla, Anita K.; Tchounwou, Paul B. 2005. "Serum Acetyl Cholinesterase as a Biomarker of Arsenic Induced Neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 1: 80-83.