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Ultraviolet Radiation Increases the Toxicity of Pyrene, 1-Aminopyrene and 1-Hydroxypyrene to Human Keratinocytes
Microbial Molecular Genetics, Cancer and Phytonutriceuticals Research Laboratory
NIH–Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
Department of Biology, Jackson State University, 1400 J. R. Lynch Street, P.O. Box 18540, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
Pharmaceutical Products Development, Inc. (PPD), 980 Harvest Dr., Suite 130, Blue Bell, PA 19422, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2004; Accepted: 6 February 2005 / Published: 30 April 2005
Abstract: Over the past several years, a great deal of interest has been focused on the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to human skin. UV light has been implicated in aging, sunburn and skin cancer. Few studies, however, have been done to determine the effects that UV light, in conjunction with other environmental contaminants, may have on human skin. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of compounds that have been reported to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to many eukaryotic organisms. UV light is also known to increase the toxicity of PAHs through photo-activation and photo-modification. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of UV-A irradiated pyrene (Pyr), 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) on human keratinocytes, the skin primary site of UV irradiated PAH exposure. Our findings indicate that simultaneous treatment of human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, with 1.0μg/ml pyrene, 1-AP or 1-HP and 3.9 J/cm2/min UV-A light resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation. Approximately 100% of the cells died in the case of UV-A irradiated 1-AP and 1-HP. In the case of UV-A irradiated pyrene, more than 70% of the cells died, indicating that UV-A is able to transform these PAHs into more harmful intermediates.
Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; photocytotoxicity; ultraviolet radiation; keratinocytes (HaCaT)
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Ekunwe, S.I.N.; Hunter, R.D.; Hwang, H.-M. Ultraviolet Radiation Increases the Toxicity of Pyrene, 1-Aminopyrene and 1-Hydroxypyrene to Human Keratinocytes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 58-62.
Ekunwe SIN, Hunter RD, Hwang H-M. Ultraviolet Radiation Increases the Toxicity of Pyrene, 1-Aminopyrene and 1-Hydroxypyrene to Human Keratinocytes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(1):58-62.
Ekunwe, Stephen I.N.; Hunter, Rochelle D.; Hwang, Huey-Min. 2005. "Ultraviolet Radiation Increases the Toxicity of Pyrene, 1-Aminopyrene and 1-Hydroxypyrene to Human Keratinocytes." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 1: 58-62.