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Cytogenetic Effects of 1,1-Dichloroethane in Mice Bone Marrow Cells
Department of Biological Sciences, Alcorn State University, Lorman, MS, USA
Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2004; Accepted: 6 February 2005 / Published: 30 April 2005
Abstract: The major concern for the halogenated compounds is their widespread distribution, in addition to occupational exposures. Several chlorinated alkanes and alkenes were found to induce toxic effects. In this study, we investigated the genotoxic potential of 1,1-dichloroethane in the bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss-Webster mice, using chromosomal aberrations (CA), mitotic index (MI), and micronuclei (MN) formation as toxicological endpoints. Five groups of three male mice each, weighing an average of 24 + 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once with doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) of 1,1-dichloroethane dissolved in ethanol. A control group was also made of three animals injected with ethanol (1%) without the chemical. All animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparations were obtained from bone marrow cells following standard protocols. Chromatid and chromosome aberrations were investigated in 100 metaphase cells per animal and percent micronuclei frequencies were investigated in 1,000 metaphase cells per animal. 1,1-dichloroethane exposures significantly increased the number of chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow cells of Swiss-Webster mice. Percent chromosomal aberrations of 2.67 + 0.577, 7.66 + 2.89, 8.33 + 2.08, 14.67 + 2.51, 20.3 + 3.21, 28 + 3.61; mitotic index of 9.4%, 7.9%, 6.2%, 4.3%, 3.0%, 2.6% and micronuclei frequencies of 3.33 + 0.7, 7.33 + 0.9, 8.00 + 1.0, 11.67 + 1.2, 15.33 + 0.7, 18.00 + 1.7 were recorded for the control, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg BW respectively; indicating a gradual increase in number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation, with increasing dose of 1,1,-dichloroethane. Our results indicate that 1,1-dichloroethane has a genotoxic potential as measured by the bone marrow CA and MN tests in Swiss- Webster mice.
Keywords: 1; 1-dichloroethane; chromosomal aberrations; micronucleus formation; mitotic index; genotoxic; Swiss-Webster mice
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Patlolla, B.P.; Patlolla, A.K.; Tchounwou, P.B. Cytogenetic Effects of 1,1-Dichloroethane in Mice Bone Marrow Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 101-106.
Patlolla BP, Patlolla AK, Tchounwou PB. Cytogenetic Effects of 1,1-Dichloroethane in Mice Bone Marrow Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(1):101-106.
Patlolla, Babu P.; Patlolla, Anita K.; Tchounwou, Paul B. 2005. "Cytogenetic Effects of 1,1-Dichloroethane in Mice Bone Marrow Cells." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 1: 101-106.