Next Article in Journal
Prevalence of Sexual Violence in Migrants, Applicants for International Protection, and Refugees in Europe: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis of the Evidence
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of a Health Promotion Program Using Urban Forests and Nursing Student Mentors on the Perceived and Psychological Health of Elementary School Children in Vulnerable Populations
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091978

Correlates of Non-Medical Prescription Drug Misuse Among a Treatment-Seeking Population: A Comparison with Illicit Drug Users

1
Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, 10 Buangkok View, Singapore 539747, Singapore
2
National Addictions Management Service, Institute of Mental Health, 10 Buangkok View, Singapore 539747, Singapore
3
Forensic Psychiatry, Institute of Mental Health, 10 Buangkok View, Singapore 539747, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Full-Text   |   PDF [304 KB, uploaded 11 September 2018]

Abstract

Prescription drugs (PD) undoubtedly help people with various physical or psychiatric ailments. Nevertheless, they are often diverted and misused (use without prescription or for purposes/in ways not intended by the prescriber). This study compared the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of those who misused PDs, used illegal drugs and co-ingested both, to identify those who were at a high risk of misusing these drugs. Retrospective analysis of the treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) data for the period of 2013–2017 identified 1369 subjects for the study; 295 patients presented with PD use disorder (PDUD alone), 811 with illegal drug use disorder (IDUD alone), and 263 had both PDUD and IDUD. The study sample included treatment seeking population (Singaporeans and permanent residents). TOM data included data collected through direct interviews (addiction severity, quality of life) and from the clinical case notes (diagnosis, co-morbidities, socio demographic information, etc.). The most commonly misused prescription and illegal drugs were benzodiazepines (63.1%) and heroin (63.4%), respectively. Those who co-ingested both PD and illegal drugs (PDUD+IDUD) had a significantly higher addiction severity score, lower quality of life and higher psychiatric co-morbidities than that of IDUD alone at baseline. When compared to Chinese patients, Malay and Indian patients had lower odds (p < 0.05) of PDUD alone and PDUD+IDUD than Chinese patients; divorcees had higher odds of PDUD+IDUD than those who were married. Those with primary and secondary qualifications had higher odds (2.1 and 2.9 times, respectively) of PDUD+IDUD than those with tertiary qualification and those in managerial or professional roles had higher odds of PDUD alone than those who were unemployed. Gender, ethnicity, marital status, education and occupational classes were associated with PDUD and IDUD. These characteristics can be helpful to identify those who are at the risk of PDUD and incorporate strict prescription monitoring to their care. View Full-Text
Keywords: prescription drugs; illegal drugs; drug abuse; addiction severity; quality of life; correlates prescription drugs; illegal drugs; drug abuse; addiction severity; quality of life; correlates
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

PV, A.; Abdin, E.; Jun Wen, T.; Subramaniam, M.; Cheok, C.; Song, G. Correlates of Non-Medical Prescription Drug Misuse Among a Treatment-Seeking Population: A Comparison with Illicit Drug Users. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1978.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top