Next Article in Journal
What Explains Education Disparities in Screening Mammography in the United States? A Comparison with The Netherlands
Previous Article in Journal
Reducing Stress and Promoting Social Integration of International Medical Students through a Tandem Program: Results of a Prospective-Program Evaluation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Study of Hybrid PVA/MA/TEOS Pervaporation Membrane and Evaluation of Energy Requirement for Desalination by Pervaporation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091960

Removal Characteristics of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Pilot-Scale Integrated Membrane Systems for Water Reuse

Research Center for Environmental Quality Management, Kyoto University, Shiga 520-0811, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3478 KB, uploaded 7 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

This study investigated the removal characteristics of N-Nitrosamines and their precursors at three pilot-scale water reclamation plants. These plants applies different integrated membrane systems: (1) microfiltration (MF)/nanofiltration (NF)/reverse osmosis (RO) membrane; (2) sand filtration/three-stage RO; and (3) ultrafiltration (UF)/NF and UF/RO. Variable removal of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by the RO processes could be attributed to membrane fouling and the feed water temperature. The effect of membrane fouling on N-Nitrosamine removal was extensively evaluated at one of the plants by conducting one month of operation and chemical cleaning of the RO element. Membrane fouling enhanced N-Nitrosamine removal by the pilot-scale RO process. This finding contributes to better understanding of the variable removal of NDMA by RO processes. This study also investigated the removal characteristics of N-Nitrosamine precursors. The NF and RO processes greatly reduced NDMA formation potential (FP), but the UF process had little effect. The contributions of MF, NF, and RO processes for reducing FPs of NDMA, N-Nitrosopyrrolidine and N-Nitrosodiethylamine were different, suggesting different size distributions of their precursors. View Full-Text
Keywords: N-Nitrosamines; formation potential; membrane treatment; reverse osmosis; membrane fouling; pilot-scale N-Nitrosamines; formation potential; membrane treatment; reverse osmosis; membrane fouling; pilot-scale
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takeuchi, H.; Yamashita, N.; Nakada, N.; Tanaka, H. Removal Characteristics of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Pilot-Scale Integrated Membrane Systems for Water Reuse. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1960.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top