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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081788

Situational Use of Child Restraint Systems and Carpooling Behaviors in Parents and Caregivers

1
Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
4
Penn Injury Science Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
5
Department of Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Hasbro Children’s Hospital, Providence, RI 02903, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Abstract

Suboptimal compliance with child restraint system (CRS) recommendations can increase risk for injury or death in a motor vehicle crash. The purpose of this study was to examine scenarios associated with incomplete CRS use and non-use in children ages 4–10 years. We used a cross-sectional online survey with a convenience sample of parent/caregivers from the United States, age ≥18 years, with a child age 4–10 years in their home, who could read and spoke English, and drove child ≥6 times in previous three months. We used descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U to describe and compare the distribution of responses to situational use of CRSs among car seat users and booster seat users. We also used descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U to describe and compare the distribution of responses to carpooling items among booster seat users and non-booster seat users. There were significant differences among those who reported most often using booster seats (n = 282) and car seats (n = 127) in situations involving rental cars, driving just around the corner, car too crowded to fit the CRS, not enough CRSs in the vehicle, the CRS is missing from the car, or the child is in someone else’s car without a CRS (p < 0.05). Among those who reported most often using booster seats and who carpooled other children (n = 159), 71.7% (n = 114) always used a booster seat for their own child. When carpooling other children, booster seat users were significantly more likely to use booster seats for other children ages 4–10 than the non-booster seat users (p < 0.01). Continued education and programs surrounding CRS use is critical, particularly for children who should be in booster seats. View Full-Text
Keywords: booster seat; carpooling; car seat; children; child restraint system; parent; seat belt booster seat; carpooling; car seat; children; child restraint system; parent; seat belt
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McDonald, C.C.; Kennedy, E.; Fleisher, L.; Zonfrillo, M.R. Situational Use of Child Restraint Systems and Carpooling Behaviors in Parents and Caregivers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1788.

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