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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061203

Respiratory Condition of Family Farmers Exposed to Pesticides in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1
Departamento de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil
2
Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo, 455, sala 1155, São Paulo, SP 01246-903, Brazil
3
Pneumologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Enéas Carvalho de Aguiar, 44-Bloco II, 5 andar, São Paulo, SP 05403000, Brazil
4
Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil
5
Centro de Tecnologia em Nanomateriais—CTNANO, Rua Prof. José Vieira de Mendonça, 1000, Belo Horizonte, MG 31310-260, Brazil
6
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro—Campus Macaé, Av. Aloísio da Silva Gomes, 50, Macaé, RJ 27930-560, Brazil
7
Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373-Bloco G-CCS, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Pesticides Exposure)
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Abstract

Pesticide exposure is a growing public health concern. Although Brazil is the world’s largest consumer of pesticides, only a few studies have addressed the health effects among farmers. This study aimed to evaluate whether pesticide exposure is associated with respiratory outcomes among rural workers and relatives in Brazil during the crop and off-seasons. Family farmers (82) were interviewed about occupational history and respiratory symptoms, and cholinesterase tests were conducted in the crop-season. Spirometry was performed during the crop and off-season. Respiratory outcomes were compared between seasons and multiple regressions analysis were conducted to search for associations with exposure indicators. Participants were occupationally and environmentally exposed to multiple pesticides from an early age. During the crop and off-season, respectively, they presented a prevalence of 40% and 30.7% for cough, 30.7% and 24% for nasal allergies, and 24% and 17.3% for chest tightness. Significant associations between spirometry impairments and exposure indicators were found both during the crop and off-season. These findings provide complementary evidence about the association of pesticide exposure with adverse respiratory effects among family farmers in Brazil. This situation requires special attention as it may increase the risk of pulmonary dysfunctions, and the morbidity and mortality burden associated with these diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; spirometry; respiratory symptoms; cholinesterase; rural workers; family farmers pesticides; spirometry; respiratory symptoms; cholinesterase; rural workers; family farmers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Buralli, R.J.; Ribeiro, H.; Mauad, T.; Amato-Lourenço, L.F.; Salge, J.M.; Diaz-Quijano, F.A.; Leão, R.S.; Marques, R.C.; Silva, D.S.; Guimarães, J.R.D. Respiratory Condition of Family Farmers Exposed to Pesticides in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1203.

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