Cigarette Waste in Popular Beaches in Thailand: High Densities that Demand Environmental Action
AbstractThailand, like all nations, has a responsibility to initiate environmental actions to preserve marine environments. Low- and middle-income countries face difficulties implementing feasible strategies to fulfill this ambitious goal. To contribute to the revitalization of Thailand’s marine ecosystems, we investigated the level of tobacco product waste (TPW) on Thailand’s public beaches. We conducted a cross-sectional observational survey at two popular public beaches. Research staff collected cigarette butts over two eight-hour days walking over a one-kilometer stretch of beach. We also compiled and analyzed data on butts collected from sieved sand at 11 popular beaches throughout Thailand’s coast, with 10 samples of sieved sand collected per beach. Our survey at two beaches yielded 3067 butts in lounge areas, resulting in a mean butt density of 0.44/m2. At the 11 beaches, sieved sand samples yielded butt densities ranging from 0.25 to 13.3/m2, with a mean butt density of 2.26/m2 (SD = 3.78). These densities show that TPW has become a serious problem along Thailand’s coastline. Our findings are comparable with those in other countries. We report on government and civil society initiatives in Thailand that are beginning to address marine TPW. The solution will only happen when responsible parties, especially and primarily tobacco companies, undertake actions to eliminate TPW. View Full-Text
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Kungskulniti, N.; Charoenca, N.; Hamann, S.L.; Pitayarangsarit, S.; Mock, J. Cigarette Waste in Popular Beaches in Thailand: High Densities that Demand Environmental Action. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 630.
Kungskulniti N, Charoenca N, Hamann SL, Pitayarangsarit S, Mock J. Cigarette Waste in Popular Beaches in Thailand: High Densities that Demand Environmental Action. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(4):630.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Hamann, Stephen L.; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Mock, Jeremiah. 2018. "Cigarette Waste in Popular Beaches in Thailand: High Densities that Demand Environmental Action." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 4: 630.
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