Next Article in Journal
The Use of Manual Vacuum Aspiration in the Treatment of Incomplete Abortions: A Descriptive Study from Three Public Hospitals in Malawi
Next Article in Special Issue
Children and Caregivers’ Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES): Association with Children’s and Caregivers’ Psychological Outcomes in a Therapeutic Preschool Program
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade
Previous Article in Special Issue
Examining the Impact of Maternal Individual Features on Children’s Behavioral Problems in Adoptive Families: The Role of Maternal Temperament and Neurobiological Markers
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020369

Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan

1
Center for Environmental and Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan
2
Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 8, Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0812, Japan
3
Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan
6
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka Higashi,. Asahikawa, 078-8510, Japan
7
Faculties of Health Science, Hokkaido University, Kita12, Nishi5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0812, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health 2018)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1123 KB, uploaded 24 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART), and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059) enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g), term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA), and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks) infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs) for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan. View Full-Text
Keywords: birth cohort; parental factor; fetal growth restriction; socioeconomic condition. birth cohort; parental factor; fetal growth restriction; socioeconomic condition.
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tamura, N.; Hanaoka, T.; Ito, K.; Araki, A.; Miyashita, C.; Ito, S.; Minakami, H.; Cho, K.; Endo, T.; Sengoku, K.; Ogasawara, K.; Kishi, R. Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 369.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top