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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020321

Mindfulness-Based Baduanjin Exercise for Depression and Anxiety in People with Physical or Mental Illnesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
2
Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02114, USA
3
The South Cove Community Health Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
4
Department of Material Science and Engineering, Sichuan University-Pittsburgh Institute, Chengdu 610065, China
5
Department of Social Work and Social Administration, Centre on Behavioral Health, The University of Hong Kong, China
6
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
7
School of Humanities and Social Science, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518172, China
8
Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract

Objectives: we used a quantitative method to systematically synthesize the emerging literature and critically evaluate the effects of Baduanjin on depression and anxiety in people with physical or mental illnesses. Additionally, we determined if the number of total Baduanjin training sessions is associated with decreased anxiety and depression levels. Methods: both English and Chinese databases were searched for potential studies published between January 1982 and October 2017. The eligible randomized controlled trials were considered for meta-analysis. Effect size (Hedge’s g) was computed for the pooled effects while the random-effect model was set. For moderator analysis; Subgroup meta-analysis for categorical variables and meta-regression for continuous variables were performed. Results: the aggregated result has shown a significant benefit in favour of Baduanjin on anxiety (Hedge’s g = −0.99; CI −1.63 to −0.74) and depression (Hedge’s g = −1.07; CI −1.3 to −0.83). For continuous potential moderators; meta-regression indicated a significant effect for total hours in Baduanjin practice (β = −0.0053; 95% CI −0.009 to −0.0014; p = 0.008). With regard to depression; meta-regression indicated a significant effect for total sessions of Baduanjin practice (β = −0.0023; 95% CI −0.006 to −0.0004; p = 0.028). Conclusions: the encouraging findings indicate the efficacy of Baduanjin exercise in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in people with physical or mental illnesses. However; the results should be interpreted with caution because of existing methodological limitations (e.g., high risk of bias; Baduanjin combined with other behavioral interventions; and heterogeneity of control groups). View Full-Text
Keywords: mindfulness; Baduanjin; depression; anxiety mindfulness; Baduanjin; depression; anxiety
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Zou, L.; Yeung, A.; Quan, X.; Hui, S.-C.; Hu, X.; Chan, J.S.M.; Wang, C.; Boyden, S.D.; Sun, L.; Wang, H. Mindfulness-Based Baduanjin Exercise for Depression and Anxiety in People with Physical or Mental Illnesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 321.

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