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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020314

Biosorption of Cadmium by Non-Toxic Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) Synthesized by Bacteria from Marine Intertidal Biofilms

1
Tecnológico Nacional de México/Instituto Tecnológico de Boca del Río, Laboratorio de Investigación en Recursos Acuáticos LIRA, Kilómetro 12, Carretera Veracruz-Córdoba, Boca del Río 94290, Veracruz, Mexico
2
Departamento de Microbiología Ambiental y Biotecnología DEMAB, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Colonia Buenavista, San Francisco de Campeche 24039, Campeche, Mexico
3
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (CICIMAR), Laboratorio de Microbiología y Biología Molecular. La Paz 23096, Baja California Sur, Mexico
4
Departamento de Física Aplicada, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV-Mérida) Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mérida 97310, Yucatán, Mexico
5
Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Oklahoma University, 770 Van Vleet Oval, Norman, OK 73019, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Cadmium is a major heavy metal found in polluted aquatic environments, mainly derived from industrial production processes. We evaluated the biosorption of solubilized Cd2+ using the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by Bacillus sp. MC3B-22 and Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 (Microbactan); these bacteria were originally isolated from intertidal biofilms off the coast of Campeche, Mexico. EPS were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium in ultrapure water. Residual Cd2+ concentrations were determined by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optic Emission Spectrometry and the maximum sorption capacity (Qmax) was calculated according to the Langmuir model. EPS were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after sorption. The Qmax of Cd2+ was 97 mg g−1 for Microbactan and 141 mg g−1 for MC3B-22 EPS, these adsorption levels being significantly higher than previously reported for other microbial EPS. In addition, XPS analysis revealed changes in structure of EPS after biosorption and showed that amino functional groups contributed to the binding of Cd2+, unlike other studies that show the carbohydrate fraction is responsible for this activity. This work expands the current view of bacterial species capable of synthesizing EPS with biosorbent potential for cadmium and provides evidence that different chemical moieties, other than carbohydrates, participate in this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic environments; bioremediation; biosorption; cadmium; extracellular polymeric substances aquatic environments; bioremediation; biosorption; cadmium; extracellular polymeric substances
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Camacho-Chab, J.C.; Castañeda-Chávez, M.R.; Chan-Bacab, M.J.; Aguila-Ramírez, R.N.; Galaviz-Villa, I.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Lango-Reynoso, F.; Tabasco-Novelo, C.; Gaylarde, C.; Ortega-Morales, B.O. Biosorption of Cadmium by Non-Toxic Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) Synthesized by Bacteria from Marine Intertidal Biofilms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 314.

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