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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020269

Removal of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from Municipal Waste Water with Integrated Membrane Systems, MBR-RO/NF

1
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, China
2
Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection, No. 59, Beiyingfang Middle Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100037, China
3
National Engineering Research Center for Urban Environmental Pollution Control, No. 59, Beiyingfang Middle Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100037, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Abstract

This study focuses on the application of combining membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment with reverse osmosis (RO) or nanofiltration (NF) membrane treatment for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in municipal wastewater. Twenty-seven PPCPs were measured in real influent with lowest average concentration being trimethoprim (7.12 ng/L) and the highest being caffeine (18.4 ng/L). The results suggest that the MBR system effectively removes the PPCPs with an efficiency of between 41.08% and 95.41%, and that the integrated membrane systems, MBR-RO/NF, can achieve even higher removal rates of above 95% for most of them. The results also suggest that, due to the differences in removal mechanisms of NF/RO membrane, differences of removal rates exist. In this study, the combination of MBR-NF resulted in the removal of 13 compounds to below detection limits and MBR-RO achieved even better results with removal of 20 compounds to below detection limits. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPCPs; wastewater; membrane bioreactor; reverse osmosis; nanofiltration; removal mechanisms PPCPs; wastewater; membrane bioreactor; reverse osmosis; nanofiltration; removal mechanisms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Li, M.; Dong, J.; Sun, C.; Chen, G. Removal of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from Municipal Waste Water with Integrated Membrane Systems, MBR-RO/NF. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 269.

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