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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020259

Converging Human and Malaria Vector Diagnostics with Data Management towards an Integrated Holistic One Health Approach

1
Hahn-Schickard, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
2
Laboratory for MEMS Applications, IMTEK—Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
3
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, PO Box, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
4
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4003 Basel, Switzerland
5
Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
6
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, 70013 Heraklion, Greece
7
Pesticide Science Laboratory, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malaria Epidemiology and Control: Current Situation and Perspectives)
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Abstract

Monitoring malaria prevalence in humans, as well as vector populations, for the presence of Plasmodium, is an integral component of effective malaria control, and eventually, elimination. In the field of human diagnostics, a major challenge is the ability to define, precisely, the causative agent of fever, thereby differentiating among several candidate (also non-malaria) febrile diseases. This requires genetic-based pathogen identification and multiplexed analysis, which, in combination, are hardly provided by the current gold standard diagnostic tools. In the field of vectors, an essential component of control programs is the detection of Plasmodium species within its mosquito vectors, particularly in the salivary glands, where the infective sporozoites reside. In addition, the identification of species composition and insecticide resistance alleles within vector populations is a primary task in routine monitoring activities, aiming to support control efforts. In this context, the use of converging diagnostics is highly desirable for providing comprehensive information, including differential fever diagnosis in humans, and mosquito species composition, infection status, and resistance to insecticides of vectors. Nevertheless, the two fields of human diagnostics and vector control are rarely combined, both at the diagnostic and at the data management end, resulting in fragmented data and mis- or non-communication between various stakeholders. To this direction, molecular technologies, their integration in automated platforms, and the co-assessment of data from multiple diagnostic sources through information and communication technologies are possible pathways towards a unified human vector approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnostics (Dx); epidemics; information and communication technologies (ICT); insecticide resistance; malaria; One Health; vector-borne diseases diagnostics (Dx); epidemics; information and communication technologies (ICT); insecticide resistance; malaria; One Health; vector-borne diseases
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Mitsakakis, K.; Hin, S.; Müller, P.; Wipf, N.; Thomsen, E.; Coleman, M.; Zengerle, R.; Vontas, J.; Mavridis, K. Converging Human and Malaria Vector Diagnostics with Data Management towards an Integrated Holistic One Health Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 259.

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