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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020183

Vertical Geochemical Variations and Speciation Studies of As, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in the Sediments of the Central Gangetic Basin: Sequential Extraction and Statistical Approach

1
Department of Environmental Science, School of Earth, Environment & Space Studies, Central University of Haryana, Jant Pali, Mahendergarh 123029, India
2
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic Contamination, Bioavailability and Public Health)
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Abstract

A geochemical and speciation study of As, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu was performed using sequential extraction and statistical approaches in the core sediments taken at two locations—Rigni Chhapra and Chaube Chhapra—of the central Gangetic basin (India). A gradual increase in the grain size (varying from clay to coarse sands) was observed in both the core profiles up to 30.5 m depth. The concentrations of analyzed elements ranged as follows: 6.9–14.2 mg/kg for As, 13,849–31,088 mg/kg for Fe, 267–711 mg/kg for Mn, 45–164 mg/kg for Cu for Rigni Chhapra while for Chaube Chhapra the range was 7.5–13.2 mg/kg for As, 10,936–37,052 mg/kg for Fe, 267–1052 mg/kg for Mn, 60–198 mg/kg for Zn and 60–108 mg/kg for Cu. Significant amounts (53–95%) of all the fractionated elemental concentrations were bound within the crystal structure of the minerals as a residual fraction. The reducible fraction was the second most dominant fraction for As (7% and 8%), Fe (3%), Mn (20% and 26%), and Cu (7% and 6%) respectively for both the cores. It may be released when aquifers subjected to changing redox conditions. The acid soluble fraction was of most interest because it could quickly mobilize into the water system which formed the third most dominating among all three fractions. Four color code of sediments showed an association with total As concentration and did not show a relation with any fraction of all elements analyzed. The core sediment was observed enriched with As and other elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn). However, it fell under uncontaminated to moderately contaminate which might exhibit a low risk in prevailing natural conditions. X-ray diffraction analyses indicated the availability of siderite and magnetite minerals in the core sediments in a section of dark grey with micaceous medium sand with organic matter (black). View Full-Text
Keywords: elemental contamination; enrichment; sequential extractions; residual fraction; oxidizable fraction; color code; mineralogy elemental contamination; enrichment; sequential extractions; residual fraction; oxidizable fraction; color code; mineralogy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kumar, M.; Ramanathan, A. Vertical Geochemical Variations and Speciation Studies of As, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in the Sediments of the Central Gangetic Basin: Sequential Extraction and Statistical Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 183.

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