Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Nutritional Status of Infants Living in Arsenic-Contaminated Areas in Bangladesh and Its Association with Arsenic Exposure
Previous Article in Journal
Favourable Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes Relative to Cigarettes and the Associations with Susceptibility to Electronic Cigarette Use in Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010055

Application of SCM with Bayesian B-Spline to Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Hypertension in China

1,2,†
,
3,†
,
1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang’an Nan Road, Xiang’an District, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, China
2
Key Laboratory of Health Technology Assessment of Fujian Province University, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiang’an Nan Road, Xiang’an District, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, China
3
Department of Statistics, School of Economics and Trade, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China
These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [4031 KB, uploaded 23 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Most previous research on the disparities of hypertension risk has neither simultaneously explored the spatio-temporal disparities nor considered the spatial information contained in the samples, thus the estimated results may be unreliable. Our study was based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), including residents over 12 years old in seven provinces from 1991 to 2011. Bayesian B-spline was used in the extended shared component model (SCM) for fitting temporal-related variation to explore spatio-temporal distribution in the odds ratio (OR) of hypertension, reveal gender variation, and explore latent risk factors. Our results revealed that the prevalence of hypertension increased from 14.09% in 1991 to 32.37% in 2011, with men experiencing a more obvious change than women. From a spatial perspective, a standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) remaining at a high level was found in Henan and Shandong for both men and women. Meanwhile, before 1997, the temporal distribution of hypertension risk for both men and women remained low. After that, notably since 2004, the OR of hypertension in each province increased to a relatively high level, especially in Northern China. Notably, the OR of hypertension in Shandong and Jiangsu, which was over 1.2, continuously stood out after 2004 for males, while that in Shandong and Guangxi was relatively high for females. The findings suggested that obvious spatial–temporal patterns for hypertension exist in the regions under research and this pattern was quite different between men and women. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial analysis; disease mapping; hypertension; Shared Components Model (SCM); Bayesian B-spline spatial analysis; disease mapping; hypertension; Shared Components Model (SCM); Bayesian B-spline
Figures

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ye, Z.; Xu, L.; Zhou, Z.; Wu, Y.; Fang, Y. Application of SCM with Bayesian B-Spline to Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Hypertension in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 55.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top