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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010038

A Survey of Naturally-Occurring Steroid Hormones in Raw Milk and the Associated Health Risks in Tangshan City, Hebei Province, China

1,2,3,†
,
1,2,†
,
1,2,* , 1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2
1
Ministry of Agriculture-Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products (Beijing), Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
3
College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, No. 4, the North Road, Shihezi 832002, China
These authors contributed equally to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [840 KB, uploaded 26 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

In recent years, high levels of hormone residue in food, capable of damaging the health of consumers, have been recorded frequently. In this study, 195 raw milk samples were obtained from Tangshan City, China, and the concentrations of 22 steroid hormones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Cortisol was detected in 12.5% of raw milk samples (mean 0.61 µg/kg; range: <limit of quantification (LOQ)–0.94 µg/kg). Progesterone was detected in 85.9% of raw milk samples (mean 5.12 µg/kg; range: <LOQ–9.04 µg/kg). The concentration of cortisol present in milk was lower than the maximum residue limit defined in Japan (10 µg/kg). Children aged between one and five years were expected to be the at-risk population when exposed to detectable steroid hormone concentrations. Based on the mean and maximum concentrations of progesterone detected in milk, the contribution was 0.85% and 0.9%, and 1.48% and 1.6% of the acceptable daily intake for boys and girls, respectively. These results imply that the concentrations of steroid hormones present in raw milk should not present a health risk for young children. View Full-Text
Keywords: raw milk; steroid hormone; progesterone; HPLC-MS/MS raw milk; steroid hormone; progesterone; HPLC-MS/MS
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Qu, X.; Su, C.; Zheng, N.; Li, S.; Meng, L.; Wang, J. A Survey of Naturally-Occurring Steroid Hormones in Raw Milk and the Associated Health Risks in Tangshan City, Hebei Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 38.

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