Fate of Fecal Indicators in Resource-Oriented Sanitation Systems Using Nitrifying Bio-Treatment
AbstractHygienic fecal treatment in resource-oriented sanitation (ROS) systems is an important concern. Although the addition of nitrifying microorganisms is a sustainable fecal treatment method in ROS systems, it is essential to examine the cleanliness of this method. In this study, we investigated the fate of fecal indicators in source-separated fecal samples through tracking Escherichia coli and total coliforms. The effects of adding different amounts of Nitrosomonas europaea bio-seed, along with a constant amount of Nitrobacter winogradskyi bio-seed, were studied. In intact feces samples, the pathogen population underwent an initial increase, followed by a slight decrease, and eventually became constant. Although the addition of nitrifying microorganisms initially enhanced the pathogen growth rate, it caused the reduction process to become more efficient in the long-term. In addition to a constant concentration of 10,000 cells of N. winogradskyi per 1 g feces, a minimum amount of 3000 and 7000 cells of N. europaea per 1 g feces could completely remove E. coli and total coliforms, respectively, in less than 25 days. Increasing the amount of bio-seeds added can further reduce the time required for total pathogen removal. View Full-Text
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Hashemi, S.; Han, M.; Namkung, E. Fate of Fecal Indicators in Resource-Oriented Sanitation Systems Using Nitrifying Bio-Treatment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 164.
Hashemi S, Han M, Namkung E. Fate of Fecal Indicators in Resource-Oriented Sanitation Systems Using Nitrifying Bio-Treatment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(1):164.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hashemi, Shervin; Han, Mooyoung; Namkung, Eun. 2018. "Fate of Fecal Indicators in Resource-Oriented Sanitation Systems Using Nitrifying Bio-Treatment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 1: 164.
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