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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010164

Fate of Fecal Indicators in Resource-Oriented Sanitation Systems Using Nitrifying Bio-Treatment

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Abstract

Hygienic fecal treatment in resource-oriented sanitation (ROS) systems is an important concern. Although the addition of nitrifying microorganisms is a sustainable fecal treatment method in ROS systems, it is essential to examine the cleanliness of this method. In this study, we investigated the fate of fecal indicators in source-separated fecal samples through tracking Escherichia coli and total coliforms. The effects of adding different amounts of Nitrosomonas europaea bio-seed, along with a constant amount of Nitrobacter winogradskyi bio-seed, were studied. In intact feces samples, the pathogen population underwent an initial increase, followed by a slight decrease, and eventually became constant. Although the addition of nitrifying microorganisms initially enhanced the pathogen growth rate, it caused the reduction process to become more efficient in the long-term. In addition to a constant concentration of 10,000 cells of N. winogradskyi per 1 g feces, a minimum amount of 3000 and 7000 cells of N. europaea per 1 g feces could completely remove E. coli and total coliforms, respectively, in less than 25 days. Increasing the amount of bio-seeds added can further reduce the time required for total pathogen removal. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; Nitrobacter winogradskyi; Nitrosomonas europaea; resource-oriented sanitation; source-separated feces; total coliforms Escherichia coli; Nitrobacter winogradskyi; Nitrosomonas europaea; resource-oriented sanitation; source-separated feces; total coliforms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Hashemi, S.; Han, M.; Namkung, E. Fate of Fecal Indicators in Resource-Oriented Sanitation Systems Using Nitrifying Bio-Treatment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 164.

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