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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010112

Incidence, Microbiological Profile and Risk Factors of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Intensive Care Units: A 10 Year Observation in a Provincial Hospital in Southern Poland

1
The Institute of Health Sciences, State Higher Vocational School in Tarnów, ul. Mickiewicza 8, 33-100 Tarnów, Poland
2
Department of Nursing Management and Epidemiology Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ul. Kopernika 25, 31-501 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Abstract

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occurring in patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are serious complications in the treatment process. Aetiological factors of these infections can have an impact on treatment effects, treatment duration and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of HAIs in patients hospitalized in an ICU over a span of 10 years. The active surveillance method was used to detect HAIs in adult patients who spent over 48 h in a general ICU ward located in southern Poland between 2007 and 2016. The study was conducted in compliance with the methodology recommended by the Healthcare-associated Infections Surveillance Network (HAI-Net) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). During the 10 years of the study, 1849 patients hospitalized in an ICU for a total of 17,599 days acquired 510 with overall HAIs rates of 27.6% and 29.0% infections per 1000 ICU days. Intubation-associated pneumonia (IAP) posed the greatest risk (15.2 per 1000 ventilator days), followed by CLA-BSI (8.0 per 1000 catheter days) and CA-UTI (3.0 per 1000 catheter days). The most common isolated microorganism was Acinetobacter baumannii (25%) followed by Coagulaase-negativ staphylococci (15%), Escherichia coli (9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%), Candida albicans (6%). Acinetobacter baumannii in 87% and were classified as extensive-drug resistant (XDR). In summary, in ICU patients pneumonia and bloodstream infections were the most frequently found. Acinetobacter baumannii strains were most often isolated from clinical materials taken from HAI patients and showed resistance to many groups of antibiotics. A trend of increasing resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; hospital infection intensive care unit; bloodstream infection urinary tract infection; ventilator-associated pneumonia; antibiotic resistance; Acinetobacter baumannii healthcare-associated infections; hospital infection intensive care unit; bloodstream infection urinary tract infection; ventilator-associated pneumonia; antibiotic resistance; Acinetobacter baumannii
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kołpa, M.; Wałaszek, M.; Gniadek, A.; Wolak, Z.; Dobroś, W. Incidence, Microbiological Profile and Risk Factors of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Intensive Care Units: A 10 Year Observation in a Provincial Hospital in Southern Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 112.

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