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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 816; doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070816

Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length—A Prognostic Factor of Women’s Reproductive Health

1
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, 30-705 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgio Buonanno and Otto Hänninen
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [517 KB, uploaded 20 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Air pollution can influence women’s reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM10, SO2, CO, and NOx) to represent a source-related mixture. PM10 and SO2 assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = −0.02; p = 0.03; b = −0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = −0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NOx assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; particulate matter; sulfur dioxide; carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxides; menstrual cycle; luteal phase; reproductive health air pollution; particulate matter; sulfur dioxide; carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxides; menstrual cycle; luteal phase; reproductive health
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Merklinger-Gruchala, A.; Jasienska, G.; Kapiszewska, M. Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length—A Prognostic Factor of Women’s Reproductive Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 816.

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