Next Article in Journal
The Effects of a Campus Forest-Walking Program on Undergraduate and Graduate Students’ Physical and Psychological Health
Previous Article in Journal
“Look at the Whole Me”: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Black Infant Mortality in the US through Women’s Lived Experiences and Community Context
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 725; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070725

Associations of PM2.5 and Black Carbon with Hospital Emergency Room Visits during Heavy Haze Events: A Case Study in Beijing, China

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1909 KB, uploaded 5 July 2017]   |  


In January 2013, severe haze events over northeastern China sparked substantial health concerns. This study explores the associations of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) with hospital emergency room visits (ERVs) during a haze season in Beijing. During that period, daily counts of ERVs for respiratory, cardiovascular and ocular diseases were obtained from a Level-3A hospital in Beijing from 1 December 2012 to 28 February 2013, and associations of which with PM2.5 and BC were estimated by time-stratified case-crossover analysis in single- and two-pollutant models. We found a 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.0, 43.9%) increase in respiratory ERV (lag02), a 19.4% (95% CI: 2.5, 39.0%) increase in cardiovascular ERV (lag0), and a 12.6% (95% CI: 0.0, 26.7%) increase in ocular ERV (lag0) along with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the PM2.5. An IQR increase of BC was associated with 27.6% (95% CI: 9.6, 48.6%) (lag02), 18.8% (95% CI: 1.4, 39.2%) (lag0) and 11.8% (95% CI: −1.4, 26.8%) (lag0) increases for changes in these same health outcomes respectively. Estimated associations were consistent after adjusting SO2 or NO2 in two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that improving air quality and reducing haze days would greatly benefit the population health. View Full-Text
Keywords: haze; PM2.5; BC; emergency room visits; population health haze; PM2.5; BC; emergency room visits; population health

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, F.; Tian, L.; Guo, Q.; Westerdahl, D.; Liu, Y.; Jin, X.; Li, G.; Pan, X. Associations of PM2.5 and Black Carbon with Hospital Emergency Room Visits during Heavy Haze Events: A Case Study in Beijing, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 725.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top