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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 674; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070674

Evaluation of Sources and Patterns of Elemental Composition of PM2.5 at Three Low-Income Neighborhood Schools and Residences in Quito, Ecuador

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
2
Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
3
Proyecto Prometeo, Secretaria de Educacion Superior, Ciencia y Tecnologia (SENESCYT), Quito, EC 170526, Ecuador
4
Instituto de Investigaciones en Biomedicina, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, EC 170201, Ecuador
5
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, EC 170136, Ecuador
6
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
7
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Elemental characterization of fine particulate matter was undertaken at schools and residences in three low income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. The three zones were located in the northern (Cotocollao), south central (El Camal), and south east (Los Chillos) neighborhoods and were classified as zones 1–3, respectively. Forty elements were quantified via ICP-MS analysis. Amongst the geogenic elements, the concentration of Si was the most abundant followed by S, Al, and Ca. Elements with predominantly anthropogenic sources such as Zn, V, and Ni were higher in zone 3 school followed by zone 2 and zone 1 schools. Enrichment factors were calculated to study the role of crustal sources in the elemental concentrations. Geogenic elements, except K, all had values <10 and anthropogenic elements such as Ni, V, Zn, Pb, As, Cr had >10. Principal Component Analysis suggested that Ni and V concentrations were strongly attributable to pet coke and heavy oil combustion. Strong associations between As and Pb could be attributed to traffic and other industrial emissions. Resuspended dust, soil erosion, vehicular emissions (tailpipe, brake and tire wear, and engine abrasion), pet coke, heavy oil combustion, and heavy industrial operations were major contributors to air pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: elemental composition; PM2.5; enrichment factors; principal component analysis; schools; residences; Quito elemental composition; PM2.5; enrichment factors; principal component analysis; schools; residences; Quito
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Raysoni, A.U.; Armijos, R.X.; Weigel, M.M.; Echanique, P.; Racines, M.; Pingitore, N.E.; Li, W.-W. Evaluation of Sources and Patterns of Elemental Composition of PM2.5 at Three Low-Income Neighborhood Schools and Residences in Quito, Ecuador. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 674.

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