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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 657; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060657

Paternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts in Northern Africans, Southeast Asians, and Central Americans

1
Division of Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
2
Department of Community Health Sciences and California Center for Population Research (CCPR), UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
4
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
5
Operation Smile Inc., Virginia Beach, VA 23453 USA
6
Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
7
Operation Smile Vietnam, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam
8
Operation Smile Philippines, Makati City 1209, Philippines
9
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila 1008, Philippines
10
Operación Sonrisa Honduras, Tegucigalpa 11101, Honduras
11
Operation Smile Morocco, Casablanca 20 000, Morocco
12
Departments of Pediatrics and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California and Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
13
Department of Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center 8700 Beverly Blvd, Room AC1072, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [313 KB, uploaded 20 June 2017]

Abstract

While several studies have investigated maternal exposures as risk factors for oral clefts, few have examined paternal factors. We conducted an international multi-centered case–control study to better understand paternal risk exposures for oral clefts (cases = 392 and controls = 234). Participants were recruited from local hospitals and oral cleft repair surgical missions in Vietnam, the Philippines, Honduras, and Morocco. Questionnaires were administered to fathers and mothers separately to elicit risk factor and family history data. Associations between paternal exposures and risk of clefts were assessed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. A father’s personal/family history of clefts was associated with significantly increased risk (adjusted OR: 4.77; 95% CI: 2.41–9.45). No other significant associations were identified for other suspected risk factors, including education (none/primary school v. university adjusted OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.74–2.24), advanced paternal age (5-year adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.84–1.16), or pre-pregnancy tobacco use (adjusted OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.67–1.37). Although sample size was limited, significantly decreased risks were observed for fathers with selected occupations. Further research is needed to investigate paternal environmental exposures as cleft risk factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral clefts; risk factors; paternal; family history; smoking oral clefts; risk factors; paternal; family history; smoking
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ly, S.; Burg, M.L.; Ihenacho, U.; Brindopke, F.; Auslander, A.; Magee, K.S.; Sanchez-Lara, P.A.; Nguyen, T.-H.-D.; Nguyen, V.; Tangco, M.I.; Hernandez, A.R.; Giron, M.; Mahmoudi, F.J.; DeClerck, Y.A.; III, W.P.M.; Figueiredo, J.C. Paternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts in Northern Africans, Southeast Asians, and Central Americans. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 657.

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