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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 632; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060632

Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food

1
Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
2
Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
3
Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Agri-Food Chain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1724 KB, uploaded 13 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi (molds). These low molecular weight compounds (usually less than 1000 Daltons) are naturally occurring and practically unavoidable. They can enter our food chain either directly from plant-based food components contaminated with mycotoxins or by indirect contamination from the growth of toxigenic fungi on food. Mycotoxins can accumulate in maturing corn, cereals, soybeans, sorghum, peanuts, and other food and feed crops in the field and in grain during transportation. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed can cause acute or chronic toxicity in human and animals. In addition to concerns over adverse effects from direct consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods and feeds, there is also public health concern over the potential ingestion of animal-derived food products, such as meat, milk, or eggs, containing residues or metabolites of mycotoxins. Members of three fungal genera, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, are the major mycotoxin producers. While over 300 mycotoxins have been identified, six (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and patulin) are regularly found in food, posing unpredictable and ongoing food safety problems worldwide. This review summarizes the toxicity of the six mycotoxins, foods commonly contaminated by one or more of them, and the current methods for detection and analysis of these mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungi; mycotoxins; aflatoxin; toxicology; analysis; chromatography; rapid strip test fungi; mycotoxins; aflatoxin; toxicology; analysis; chromatography; rapid strip test
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Alshannaq, A.; Yu, J.-H. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 632.

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