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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 603;

Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

Department of Public Health, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 97004, Taiwan
Institute of Health Policy and Management, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10055, Taiwan
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 23561, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Department of Occupational Therapy, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 97002, Taiwan
School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualian 97004, Taiwan
Department of Rehabilitation and Movement Science, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil 6207, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1267 KB, uploaded 6 June 2017]   |  


Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of other countries and subgroups. View Full-Text
Keywords: activity and participation; functioning; disability; norms; WHODAS 2.0 activity and participation; functioning; disability; norms; WHODAS 2.0

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Yen, C.-F.; Chiu, T.-Y.; Liou, T.-H.; Chi, W.-C.; Liao, H.-F.; Liang, C.-C.; Escorpizo, R. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 603.

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