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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 520; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050520

The Health Risk of Cd Released from Low-Cost Jewelry

1
Institute of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic
2
Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies (CEMNAT), Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, 530 02 Pardubice, Czech Republic
3
Department of Waste Management, Czech Environmental Inspectorate, Na Břehu 267, 190 00 Praha 9, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helena Solo-Gabriele
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

The composition of the surface layer of 13 low-cost jewelry samples with a high Cd content was analyzed using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (ED XRF). The analyzed jewels were obtained in cooperation with the Czech Environmental Inspectorate. The jewels were leached in two types of artificial sweat (acidic and alkaline) for 7 days. Twenty microliters of the resulting solution was subsequently placed on a paper carrier and analyzed by an LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry) spectrometer after drying. The Cd content in the jewelry surface layer detected by using ED XRF ranged from 13.4% to 44.6% (weight per weight—w/w). The samples were subsequently leached in artificial alkaline, and the acidic sweat and leachates were analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS). The amount of released Cd into alkaline sweat ranged from 24.0 to 370 µg Cd per week, respectively 3.23–61.7 µg/cm2/week. The amount of released Cd into acidic sweat ranged from 16.4 to 1517 µg Cd per week, respectively 3.53–253 µg/cm2/week. The limit of Cd for dermal exposure is not unequivocally determined in the countries of the EU (European Union) or in the U.S. Based on the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) approach used to establish the reference dose (RfD) for Cd contained in food and information about the bioavailability of Cd after dermal exposure, we assessed our own value of dermal RfD. The value was compared with the theoretical amount of Cd, which can be absorbed into the organism from jewelry in contact with the skin. The calculation was based on the amount of Cd that was released into acidic and alkaline sweat. The highest amount of Cd was released into acidic sweat, which represents 0.1% of dermal RfD and into alkaline sweat, 0.5% of dermal RfD. These results indicate that the analyzed jewelry contains Cd over the limit for composition of jewelry available within the territory of the EU. The determined amount of Cd in analyzed jewelry does not, however, pose a threat in terms of non-carcinogenic toxic effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: health risk; low-cost jewelry; artificial sweat; cadmium; laser-induced breakdown spectrometry health risk; low-cost jewelry; artificial sweat; cadmium; laser-induced breakdown spectrometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pouzar, M.; Zvolská, M.; Jarolím, O.; Audrlická Vavrušová, L. The Health Risk of Cd Released from Low-Cost Jewelry. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 520.

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