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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 513; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050513

Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Toxicological Research and Risk Assessment for Food Safety, School of Public Health, Peking University, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
3
Chinese Nutrition Society, 6 Guang An Men Nei Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100053, China
4
Institute of Food and Nutrition Development, Ministry of Agriculture, 12 Zhong Guan Cun Nan Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100181, China
5
National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nan Wei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China
6
Department of Health Management and Service, Cangzhou Medical College, Higher Education District, Cangzhou 061000, China
7
Clinical Laboratory, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Xinhua District, Cangzhou 061000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [857 KB, uploaded 11 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001) and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001). The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R2) explained by PLS (partial least squares) model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers—24-h urine volume and osmolality—were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid intake; hydration; urine osmolality fluid intake; hydration; urine osmolality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, N.; Du, S.; Tang, Z.; Zheng, M.; Yan, R.; Zhu, Y.; Ma, G. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 513.

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