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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 401; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040401

Gender-Specific Impact of Cadmium Exposure on Bone Metabolism in Older People Living in a Cadmium-Polluted Area in Thailand

1
Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University Hospital, Uchinada 920-0293, Japan
2
Health Evaluation Center, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada 920-0293, Japan
3
School of Health Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
4
Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
5
Mae Sot General Hospital, Mae Sot District, Tak Province 63110, Thailand
6
Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [283 KB, uploaded 11 April 2017]

Abstract

To elucidate the influence of cadmium exposure on bone metabolism, associations between urinary/blood cadmium and bone resorption/formation markers were investigated in older cadmium exposed men and women. Increased urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx), a bone resorption marker, was found to be associated with increased levels of parathyroid hormone, fractional excretion of calcium, and urinary/blood cadmium after adjusting for confounding factors in men. In women, urinary NTx was significantly associated with only urinary cadmium and a strong relationship with increased fractional excretion of calcium. Risk for bone metabolic disorders, indicated by high urinary NTx, significantly increased in men with blood cadmium ≥ 10 μg/L or urinary cadmium ≥ 10 μg/g creatinine. Increased osteocalcin level was significantly associated with increased blood cadmium in men. In conclusion, cadmium exposure appeared to have an influence on bone remodeling both bone resorption and formation in this population of older Thai men, and blood cadmium was more closely associated with bone metabolism than urinary cadmium. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood cadmium; urinary cadmium; bone resorption marker; bone formation marker; whole parathyroid hormone; vitamin D binding protein; Thailand blood cadmium; urinary cadmium; bone resorption marker; bone formation marker; whole parathyroid hormone; vitamin D binding protein; Thailand
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishijo, M.; Nambunmee, K.; Suvagandha, D.; Swaddiwudhipong, W.; Ruangyuttikarn, W.; Nishino, Y. Gender-Specific Impact of Cadmium Exposure on Bone Metabolism in Older People Living in a Cadmium-Polluted Area in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 401.

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