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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 206; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020206

An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
2
Key Medical Research Center, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony R. Mawson
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1218 KB, uploaded 20 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine; iodine deficiency; urinary iodine concentration; pregnancy iodine; iodine deficiency; urinary iodine concentration; pregnancy
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Wang, Z.; Zhu, W.; Mo, Z.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G.; Wang, X.; Lou, X. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 206.

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