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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 187; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020187

Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model

1
School of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing 210044, China
3
Fujian Education Examinations Authority, 59 Beihuanzhong Road, Fuzhou 350003, Fujian, China
4
Department of Automation, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
5
School of Information, Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jason K. Levy and Peiyong Yu
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Economics, Environmental Health Policy and Climate Change)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [353 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]

Abstract

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and I I -consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results. View Full-Text
Keywords: POPs; animal source food; interval preference relation; consensus; consistency; social choice principles POPs; animal source food; interval preference relation; consensus; consistency; social choice principles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, X.; Gong, Z.; Huang, M.; Wang, Z.-J. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 187.

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