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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 110; doi:10.3390/ijerph14020110

Particulate Matter and Respiratory Symptoms among Adults Living in Windhoek, Namibia: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study

Department of Health Sciences, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Private Bag 13388, Windhoek 9000, Namibia
Laureate Online Education, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kim Natasha Dirks
Received: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [297 KB, uploaded 24 January 2017]


This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to assess respiratory health risks associated with Particulate Matter (PM) exposure among the residents of Windhoek, Namibia. Objectives: To measure particulate pollution concentration in Windhoek through monitoring of particulate matter concentration and to identify any associations between particulate pollution, individual location, and respiratory health among the Windhoek resident’s. Methods: an adapted standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collect respiratory health related data as well as previous exposure, while PM monitoring was done using the ASTM (American Standard Test Method) D1739 reference method. Results: A high prevalence was observed for cough (43%), breathlessness (25%), and asthma (11.2%). PM was found to be a significant risk factor for episodes of coughing and phlegm, while high PM exposure category had an increased odds ratio (OR) for episodes of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.5, 95% CI (95% confidence intervals): 0.8–8.0). No association was observed between location and respiratory health outcomes. Conclusions: The study found high levels of PM concentration across all Windhoek suburbs which were above the German, American, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Enactment of legislation relating to the control and monitoring of PM related emissions at the point of generation is required at both a country and city level. View Full-Text
Keywords: respiratory symptoms; PM exposure; residential location; Namibia; Windhoek respiratory symptoms; PM exposure; residential location; Namibia; Windhoek
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hamatui, N.; Beynon, C. Particulate Matter and Respiratory Symptoms among Adults Living in Windhoek, Namibia: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 110.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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