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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1163;

Modeling of Chromium, Copper, Zinc, Arsenic and Lead Using Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform

1,2,3,* and 1,2,3
Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China
Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Agriculture Environment Monitoring, Beijing 100097, China
Risk Assessment Lab for Agro-products (Beijing), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3236 KB, uploaded 31 October 2017]   |  


A modeling method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was introduced to analyze the concentration of chromium, copper, zinc, arsenic and lead in soil with a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. A total of 111 soil samples were collected and observed. Denoising and baseline correction were performed on each spectrum before modeling. The optimum conditions for pre-processing were denoising with Coiflet 3 on the 3rd level and baseline correction with Coiflet 3 on the 9th level. Calibration curves were established for the five heavy metals (HMs). The detection limits were compared before and after the application of DWT, the qualitative detection limits and the quantitative detection limits were calculated to be three and ten times as high as the standard deviation with silicon dioxide (blank), respectively. The results showed that the detection limits of the instrument using DWT were lower, and that they were below national soil standards; the determination coefficients (R2) based on DWT-processed spectra were higher, and ranged from 0.990 to 0.996, indicating a high degree of linearity between the contents of the HMs in soil and the XRF spectral characteristic peak intensity with the instrument measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray fluorescence; heavy metal; soil; wavelet transform X-ray fluorescence; heavy metal; soil; wavelet transform

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Li, F.; Lu, A.; Wang, J. Modeling of Chromium, Copper, Zinc, Arsenic and Lead Using Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1163.

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