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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1162; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101162

Living Close to Natural Outdoor Environments in Four European Cities: Adults’ Contact with the Environments and Physical Activity

1
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), ISGlobal, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
2
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
3
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
4
Physical Activity and Sports Sciences Department, Fundació Blanquerna, Ramon Llull University, 08022 Barcelona, Spain
5
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
6
Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2 DE, UK
7
Department of Public and Occupational Health, Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre (VUMC), 1007 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
8
Department of Environmental Science, Vytauto Didžiojo Universitetas, 44248 Kaunas, Lithuania
9
Centre for Sustainability, Environment and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 Bilthoven, The Netherlands
10
Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 Bilthoven, The Netherlands
11
Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract

This study investigated whether residential availability of natural outdoor environments (NOE) was associated with contact with NOE, overall physical activity and physical activity in NOE, in four different European cities using objective measures. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in Barcelona (Spain); Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Doetinchem (The Netherlands); and Kaunas (Lithuania). Smartphones were used to collect information on the location and physical activity (overall and NOE) of around 100 residents of each city over seven days. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to determine residential NOE availability (presence/absence of NOE within 300 m buffer from residence), contact with NOE (time spent in NOE), overall PA (total physical activity), NOE PA (total physical activity in NOE). Potential effect modifiers were investigated. Participants spent around 40 min in NOE and 80 min doing overall PA daily, of which 11% was in NOE. Having residential NOE availability was consistently linked with higher NOE contact during weekdays, but not to overall PA. Having residential NOE availability was related to NOE PA, especially for our Barcelona participants, people that lived in a city with low NOE availability. View Full-Text
Keywords: green spaces; physical activity; natural outdoor environments green spaces; physical activity; natural outdoor environments
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Triguero-Mas, M.; Donaire-Gonzalez, D.; Seto, E.; Valentín, A.; Smith, G.; Martínez, D.; Carrasco-Turigas, G.; Masterson, D.; van den Berg, M.; Ambròs, A.; Martínez-Íñiguez, T.; Dedele, A.; Hurst, G.; Ellis, N.; Grazulevicius, T.; Voorsmit, M.; Cirach, M.; Cirac-Claveras, J.; Swart, W.; Clasquin, E.; Maas, J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Jerrett, M.; Gražulevičienė, R.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. Living Close to Natural Outdoor Environments in Four European Cities: Adults’ Contact with the Environments and Physical Activity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1162.

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