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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 89; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010089

Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey

1
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
2
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland
3
School of Medical Sciences, Kathmandu University, P.O. Box 11008, Dhulikhel, Nepal
4
Aquatic Ecology Centre, School of Science, Kathmandu University, P.O. Box 6250, Dhulikhel, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sayed M. Hassan
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Human Health Risk)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [773 KB, uploaded 18 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8–7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1–0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren’s homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross-sectional survey; drinking water quality; hygiene; Nepal; sanitation; schoolchildren cross-sectional survey; drinking water quality; hygiene; Nepal; sanitation; schoolchildren
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Shrestha, A.; Sharma, S.; Gerold, J.; Erismann, S.; Sagar, S.; Koju, R.; Schindler, C.; Odermatt, P.; Utzinger, J.; Cissé, G. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 89.

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