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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 52; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010052

Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age

1
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Honjyo 1-1-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
2
Department of Environmental Systems, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563, Japan
3
Faculty of Life Sciences, Toyo University, Izumino 1-1-1, Itakura, Oura, Gunma 374-0193, Japan
4
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8056, Japan
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Showa University School of Medicine, Hatanodai 1-5-8, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
6
Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, Hatanodai 1-5-8, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ricardo Bello-Mendoza
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 8 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological and Human-Health Effects of Pesticides in the Environment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [284 KB, uploaded 24 January 2017]

Abstract

The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyrethroid insecticide; urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; in utero exposure; child development; KIDS pyrethroid insecticide; urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; in utero exposure; child development; KIDS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hisada, A.; Yoshinaga, J.; Zhang, J.; Katoh, T.; Shiraishi, H.; Shimodaira, K.; Okai, T.; Ariki, N.; Komine, Y.; Shirakawa, M.; Noda, Y.; Kato, N. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 52.

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