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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 925; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090925

Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

1
School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou, Nanjing 210096, China
2
Taihu Lake Water Environment Engineering Research Center (Wuxi), Southeast University, 99 Linghu Street, Wuxi 214000, China
3
Department of Building, Civil, and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve, Boulevard West, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
4
Research Center of Watershed Ecological Conservation and Water Pollution Control, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China, 8 Jiangwangmiao Street, Nanjing 210042, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
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Abstract

Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzophenone; N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide; personal care products; acute toxicity; ecological risk assessment benzophenone; N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide; personal care products; acute toxicity; ecological risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, H.-Q.; Du, Y.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Jiang, W.-J.; Guo, Y.-M.; Lu, X.-W.; Zhang, Y.-M.; Sun, L.-W. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 925.

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