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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 915; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090915

Analysis of Pollution Hazard Intensity: A Spatial Epidemiology Case Study of Soil Pb Contamination

1
Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Geography, Auburn University at Montgomery, 7041 Senators Drive, Montgomery, AL 36117, USA
2
Department of Geography, University at Buffalo, Wilkeson Hall, Buffalo, NY 14261, USA
3
Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Farber Hall, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
4
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
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Abstract

Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination. Spatial regression models are used to account for spatial dependencies using these explanatory variables. After accounting for covariates and multicollinearity, results of the analysis indicate that lead concentration in soils varies markedly in the vicinity of a specific foundry (Foundry A), and that proximity to railroads explained a significant amount of spatial variation in soil lead concentration. Moreover, elevated soil lead levels were identified as a concern in industrial sites, neighborhoods with a high density of old housing, a high percentage of African American population, and a low percent of occupied housing units. The use of spatial modelling allows for better identification of significant factors that are correlated with soil lead concentrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil lead (Pb) contamination; physical and socioeconomic/demographic characteristics; spatial modelling; Anniston; Alabama soil lead (Pb) contamination; physical and socioeconomic/demographic characteristics; spatial modelling; Anniston; Alabama
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, H.; Rogerson, P.A.; Olson, J.R.; Han, D.; Bian, L.; Shao, W. Analysis of Pollution Hazard Intensity: A Spatial Epidemiology Case Study of Soil Pb Contamination. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 915.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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