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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 908; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090908

Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Anemia during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in China

1
School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
2
Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
3
Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
4
School of Nursing, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
5
Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
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The Department of Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
7
Department of Reproduction Health and Infertility, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
8
Canada-China-New Zealand Joint Laboratory of Maternal and Fetal Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
9
Department of Behavioral and Environmental Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Scott A. Venners
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed anemia was used in the study. Results: We included 2345 pregnant women. Of the participants, 1755 (74.8%) were pregnant women of first pregnancy (PWFP) and 590 (25.2%) were second pregnancy (PWSP). The mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD 4.1). Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 12.7% (13.4% and 10.7% among PWFP and PWSP, respectively). The prevalence for not eating breakfast was 11.0%. Compared with PWFP, PWSP was inversely associated with the risk of anemia (odds ratio (OR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.91). Compared with those being registered in a low ranking hospital, pregnant women who were admitted to a high (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28–0.57) or a medium ranking hospital (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.92) were inversely associated with the risk of anemia. Compared with women of low income (<¥4,500), those with high income were less likely to have anemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50–0.94). Compared with women with non-manual jobs, women with manual jobs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17–2.45) and unemployed women (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93) were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Conclusions: Pregnant women not eating breakfast are of concern. Anemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women in China. Lower socio-economic status, manual jobs, PWFP, and those who attend a lower quality hospital have a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Tailored interventions are needed to address these issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: sociodemographic; lifestyle; anemia; pregnant women; China sociodemographic; lifestyle; anemia; pregnant women; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Liu, S.; Rao, Y.; Shi, Z.; Wang, L.; Sharma, M.; Zhao, Y. Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Anemia during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 908.

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