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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 875; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090875

Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz)

1
Institute of Non-Ionizing Radiation (INIS), Pohorskega Bataljona 215, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
2
Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Informazione e delle Telecomunicazioni IEIIT, CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133, Italy
3
European Centre for Environment and Human Health (ECEHH), University of Exeter Medical School, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3HD, UK
4
Formerly Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader, 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain
5
Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124, Greece
6
National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Anna u.5., Budapest 1221, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irena Cosic
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [304 KB, uploaded 1 September 2016]

Abstract

We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetic fields; exposure assessment; exposimetry; ELF magnetic fields; intermediate frequencies (IF) electromagnetic fields; exposure assessment; exposimetry; ELF magnetic fields; intermediate frequencies (IF)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gajšek, P.; Ravazzani, P.; Grellier, J.; Samaras, T.; Bakos, J.; Thuróczy, G. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 875.

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