Next Article in Journal
Can We Further Improve the Quality of Nephro-Urological Care in Children with Myelomeningocele?
Next Article in Special Issue
The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment
Previous Article in Journal
Leachate from Municipal Waste Landfill and Its Natural Degradation—A Case Study of Zubří, Zlín Region
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 60 GHz Millimeter-Wavelength Radiation on the Genotoxicity and Heat Shock Protein (Hsp) Expression of Cells Derived from Human Eye
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 875; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090875

Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz)

Institute of Non-Ionizing Radiation (INIS), Pohorskega Bataljona 215, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Informazione e delle Telecomunicazioni IEIIT, CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133, Italy
European Centre for Environment and Human Health (ECEHH), University of Exeter Medical School, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3HD, UK
Formerly Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader, 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain
Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124, Greece
National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Anna u.5., Budapest 1221, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irena Cosic
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [304 KB, uploaded 1 September 2016]


We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetic fields; exposure assessment; exposimetry; ELF magnetic fields; intermediate frequencies (IF) electromagnetic fields; exposure assessment; exposimetry; ELF magnetic fields; intermediate frequencies (IF)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gajšek, P.; Ravazzani, P.; Grellier, J.; Samaras, T.; Bakos, J.; Thuróczy, G. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 875.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top