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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 759;

Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students

Injury Prevention Research Center, Shantou University Medical College, 22 Xin Ling Road, Shantou 515041, China
Fu Jian Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 76 Jin Tai Road, Fu Zhou 350001, China
The Second People’s Hospital of Long Gang District, 175 Ji Hua Road, Shenzhen 518172, China
The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, 57 Chang Ping Road, Shantou 515041, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [289 KB, uploaded 27 July 2016]


Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents’ risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims’ and parents’ educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought. View Full-Text
Keywords: bullying; adolescents; risk factors; bystander bullying; adolescents; risk factors; bystander
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Huang, Z.; Liu, Z.; Liu, X.; Lv, L.; Zhang, Y.; Ou, L.; Li, L. Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 759.

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