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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 748; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080748

Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures

Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 167, Beilishi Road, Beijing 100037, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
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Abstract

The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; PM2.5; epidemiology; mechanisms; prevention measures acute coronary syndrome; PM2.5; epidemiology; mechanisms; prevention measures
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Meng, X.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, K.-Q.; Yang, Y.-K.; Zhou, X.-L. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 748.

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