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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 715; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070715

Origin-Oriented Elemental Profile of Fine Ambient Particulate Matter in Central European Suburban Conditions

1
Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Environmental Engineering, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, Zabrze 41-819, Poland
2
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 166, Warszawa 02-776, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
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Abstract

Twenty-four-hour samples of fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm) were collected in a suburban (quasi-rural) area in Racibórz (Poland) between 1 January 2011 and 26 December 2012. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 28 elements. Sources of PM2.5 were identified and the contribution of each source to the PM2.5 concentration was assessed using an enrichment factor (EF) analysis, a principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). In the cold season (January–March and October–December 2011–2012), the mean ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Racibórz was 48.7 ± 39.4 µg·m−3, which was much higher than at other suburban or rural sites in Europe. Additionally the ambient concentrations of some toxic PM2.5-bound elements were also high, i.e., the mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound As, Cd, and Pb were 11.3 ± 11.5, 5.2 ± 2.5, and 34.0 ± 34.2 ng·m−3, respectively. In the warm season (April–September 2011–2012), the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound element concentrations in Racibórz were comparable to the concentrations noted at other suburban (or rural) sites in Europe. Our findings suggest that elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 in Racibórz are mainly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, i.e., the energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, traffic, and industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: respirable particulates; source apportionment; MLRA; PCA; traffic emissions; municipal emission; coal combustion; hotspot area in Europe respirable particulates; source apportionment; MLRA; PCA; traffic emissions; municipal emission; coal combustion; hotspot area in Europe
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rogula-Kozłowska, W.; Majewski, G.; Błaszczak, B.; Klejnowski, K.; Rogula-Kopiec, P. Origin-Oriented Elemental Profile of Fine Ambient Particulate Matter in Central European Suburban Conditions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 715.

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