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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 680; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070680

Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

1
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Korea
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, 1071, Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul 07985, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [307 KB, uploaded 5 July 2016]

Abstract

Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. View Full-Text
Keywords: beverage; Bisphenol A; dietary intake; egg; phthalates; reproductive aged women beverage; Bisphenol A; dietary intake; egg; phthalates; reproductive aged women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jo, A.; Kim, H.; Chung, H.; Chang, N. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 680.

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