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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 624; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060624

City-Specific Spatiotemporal Infant and Neonatal Mortality Clusters: Links with Socioeconomic and Air Pollution Spatial Patterns in France

1
Department of Quantitative Methods in Public Health, EHESP School of Public Health-Sorbonne-Paris Cité, Rennes 35043, France
2
IRSET—Research Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes 35000, France
3
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, EHESP School of Public Health, Rennes, Sorbonne-Paris Cité 35043, France
4
Program in Public Health, Chao Family Cancer Center, University of Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Congdon
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-temporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2752 KB, uploaded 22 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Infant and neonatal mortality indicators are known to vary geographically, possibly as a result of socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. To better understand how these factors contribute to spatial and temporal patterns, we conducted a French ecological study comparing two time periods between 2002 and 2009 for three (purposefully distinct) Metropolitan Areas (MAs) and the city of Paris, using the French census block of parental residence as the geographic unit of analysis. We identified areas of excess risk and assessed the role of neighborhood deprivation and average nitrogen dioxide concentrations using generalized additive models to generate maps smoothed on longitude and latitude. Comparison of the two time periods indicated that statistically significant areas of elevated infant and neonatal mortality shifted northwards for the city of Paris, are present only in the earlier time period for Lille MA, only in the later time period for Lyon MA, and decrease over time for Marseille MA. These city-specific geographic patterns in neonatal and infant mortality are largely explained by socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. Spatial analysis can be a useful tool for understanding how risk factors contribute to disparities in health outcomes ranging from infant mortality to infectious disease—a leading cause of infant mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant mortality; neonatal mortality; cluster analysis; environmental nuisances; neighborhood deprivation; spatial modeling infant mortality; neonatal mortality; cluster analysis; environmental nuisances; neighborhood deprivation; spatial modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Padilla, C.M.; Kihal-Talantikit, W.; Vieira, V.M.; Deguen, S. City-Specific Spatiotemporal Infant and Neonatal Mortality Clusters: Links with Socioeconomic and Air Pollution Spatial Patterns in France. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 624.

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