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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 597; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060597

Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

1
Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Ave. Universidad s/n, San Nicolás de los Garza 66450, N.L., Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Circuito Nuevo Campus Universitario s/n, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico
3
Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas, Dirección Regional Norte y Sierra Madre Occidental, Parque Nacional Cascada de Bassaseachic, Ocampo, Chihuahua 31203, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
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Abstract

Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05) and fecal (p < 0.001) coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. View Full-Text
Keywords: water; pollution; antibiotic; multidrug resistance; enteric; microorganisms; MPN; environment water; pollution; antibiotic; multidrug resistance; enteric; microorganisms; MPN; environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delgado-Gardea, M.C.E.; Tamez-Guerra, P.; Gomez-Flores, R.; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, F.J.; Eroza-de la Vega, G.; Nevárez-Moorillón, G.V.; Pérez-Recoder, M.C.; Sánchez-Ramírez, B.; González-Horta, M.C.; Infante-Ramírez, R. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 597.

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