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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 543; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060543

Analysis of the Relationship between Estradiol and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Concentrations and Polymorphisms of Apolipoprotein E and LeptinGenes in Women Post-Menopause

1
Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
2
Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-460, Poland
3
Department of Gerontobiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
4
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
5
Department of Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
6
Department of Public Health, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
7
Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-210, Poland
8
Department of Infectious, Tropical Diseases and Immune Deficiency, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-455, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 25 May 2016 / Published: 28 May 2016
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Abstract

Background: Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation due to loss of ovarian follicular activity. A review of the available literature indicates that correlations between the changes that take place in a woman’s body after menopause and different genetic variants are still being sought. Methods: The study was conducted in 252 women who had completed physiological menopause. The women were divided into groups according to the time elapsed since menopause. The total concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone were determined by means of electrochemiluminescence. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) and lepitn (LEP) genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively. Results: We observed that people with the APOE3/E3 genotype entered menopause insignificantly later compared to other genotypes. Additionally, in the group of patients with the APOE3/E3 genotypes, differences in the E2 concentration were significantly related to the time since their last menstruation. There is no association found in the literature between these polymorphisms of the LEP gene and hormones. Conclusions: To date, attempts to formulate a model describing the association between E2 and FSH concentration with the polymorphisms of various genes of menopause in women have not been successful. This relationship is difficult to study because of the number of nongenetic factors. Environmental factors can explain variation in postmenopausal changes in hormone levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: menopause; hormones; apolipoprotein E; leptin menopause; hormones; apolipoprotein E; leptin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rył, A.; Jasiewicz, A.; Grzywacz, A.; Adler, G.; Skonieczna-Żydecka, K.; Rotter, I.; Sipak-Szmigiel, O.; Rumianowski, B.; Karakiewicz, B.; Jurczak, A.; Parczewski, M.; Urbańska, A.; Grabowska, M.; Laszczyńska, M. Analysis of the Relationship between Estradiol and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Concentrations and Polymorphisms of Apolipoprotein E and LeptinGenes in Women Post-Menopause. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 543.

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