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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 449; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050449

Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China

1
State Key laboratory for Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.18 Shuangqing Rd., Haidian District, Beijing 100085, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Rd., Beijing 100049, China
3
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, 2801 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
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Abstract

Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; land use and land cover; non-point source pollution; scale; Beijing water quality; land use and land cover; non-point source pollution; scale; Beijing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, X.; Zhou, W.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Li, W.; Han, L. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 449.

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